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تازه ها در روانشناسی تربیتی - تومیسم
 
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 رئالیسم خداباورانه و آموزش و پرورش

 در تاریخ اندیشه، واقع گرایی خداباورانه نمودار تلفیق افکار تعقلی یونان، به نمایندگی ارسطو و الهیات مسیحی است.

توماس  : بنیان گذار واقع گرایی خداباورانه

اکویناس، همچون ارسطو، انسانها را موجودات عاقلی تلقی می‌کند که فصل مفید آنان را قوای عقلانی تشکیل می‌دهد. همچنین، وی معتقد است که معرفت انسان با ادراک حسی آغاز می شود و از راه مفهوم سازی و تجربه به کمال می‌رسد.

مبانی فلسفی و کلامی تومیسم

-  تومیسم ضمن آنکه بر اصول مابعد الطبیعه و معرفت شناسی رئالیسم طبیعی ارسطو صحه می‌گذارد، بر اصول مسیحیت نیز تأکید می‌کند.

-  در تقابل با رئالیسم طبیعی، توریست‌ها، ماوراءالطبیعه را قبول دارند. تومیستها مدعی اند که تعالی به جهت انگیزه الهی که سعادتی غایی اعلی و اکمل است، هدف غایی زندگانی آنان است.

-  تومیسم درباره واقعیت، دیدگاهی ثنوی ابراز میدارد که به موجب آن واقعیت دارای بعد مادی و روحی است.

تومیسم و معرفت

- معرفت شناسی تومیستی از الگوهای اساسی ارسطویی پیروی میکند.از راه تجربه حسی که شرط ضروری شناخت است، ما سایر اشیاء و اشخاص را احساس می کنیم. اکونیاس همانند ارسطو معتقد بود که عالی ترین فعالیت انسان تعقل یعنی اعمال قوای فکری و نظری است.

-  از نگاه اکونیاس، سعادت واقعی پس از مرگ تن حاصل می شود.


 

آموزش و پرورش اخلاقی

-  آموزش و پرورش تومیستی، به ویژه در مدارس کاتولیک، عامرانه به ارزشهایی مافوق طبیعی متعهد است.

-  آموزش و پرورش اخلاقی در چارچوب فلسفه تومیستی، فرآیند عادت دادن متعلم به فضای فضیلت است. فضای مدرسه مسیحی باید فعالیتها و شرایطی را که راهگشای شکل گیری مشکلات اخلاقی هستند، تأمین نماید.

مفهوم تومیستی طبیعت انسان و دلالتهای ضمنی آن برای برنامه درسی

       مفهوم تومیستی انسان یا "روح در جهان" برای برنامه  درسی زمینه ای فراهم میکند که اصل سلسله مراتبی محکمیتها در آن جاری است. آن جنبه هایی از هستی که کلی، انتزاعی و ماندگارند در رأس این سلسله مراتب قرار می گیرند. چون نفس آدمی جاویدان است و سعادت کامل تعالی سرورآفرین الهی نصیب اوست، موضوعاتی مانند الهیات و مطالعات متون آسمانی و مذهبی که موجب رشد و کمال معنوی آدمی هستند در برنامه درسی مورد تأکید قرار می گیرند. چون آموزش و پرورش ماهیتاً شامل آماده ساختن انسان است برای آنچه در این عالم سفلی باید بشود و به جای آورد تا به غایت والای آفرینش خویش دست یابد واضح است که آموزش و پرورش تومیستی کلیه وجوه زندگانی انسان را در برمیگیرد؛ جسمی، روحی عقلانی و اخلاقی، فردی، خانوادگی و اجتماعی.

رابطه معلم و شاگرد در نظام تومیستی

-  به عقیده تومیستها، تعلیم و تربیت فرآیندی مادام العمر است که مستلزم وجود اشخاص و نهادهای مختلف همچون خانواده، کلیسا و اجتماع است.

تحصیلات آموزشگاهی، یا آموزش و پرورش رسمی بر عهده معلمان است که آگاهانه مسئولیت آموزش کودکان و جوانان را بر عهده دارند.

-  تومیستها اصرار دارند که والدین باید در تربیت فرزندان خویش نقش اول را ایفا نمایند.

-  از دیدگاه تومیستها، مدرسه نهادی نیست که بتواند همه شئون تربیتی را در بر بگیرد. به عقیده تومیستها تعریف آموزش و پرورش شامل تشکل عمومی انسان به وسیعترین صورت ممکن است. تعلیم و تربیت به عنوان فرآیند کلی رشد و کمال انسان از آموزش رسمی که در محیط محدودتر مدرسه تحقق می یابد، وسیعتر است.

-  در متن مدرسه تومیستی، معلم شخص بالغی است که توشه ای از معرفت یا مهارت قابل آموزش را داراست که از طریق آموزش عامرانه میکوشد آن را در اختیار دانش آموزان قرار دهد.

-  تدریس فرآیندی کلامی است که طی آن معلم کلمات و عبارات مناسب را به دقت انتخاب می کند تا اصولی را که متعلم باید فرا گیرد، توصیف و مبرهن نماید.

-  دانش آموز باید در فرآیند رابطه معلم و شاگرد فعالانه مشارکت جوید زیرا وی بالقوه دارای توانایی عقلانی درک و تملک معرفت است.

-  معلم نظام تربیتی باید ارتباطگر ماهری باشد.تدریس همیشه باید از چیزی که دانش آموز قبلاً یاد گرفته آغاز شود و به نتیجه تازه ای منتهی شود.

-  معلمان علاوه بر نقش فکری، دارای نقش اخلاقی مهمی نیز هستند. آنان باید نقش الگوهایی را که شایسته تقلید هستند، ایفا نمایند.





نوع مطلب : مکاتب فلسفی، 
برچسب ها :
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       نظرات
دوشنبه 24 مهر 1391
هادی صمدیه
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I'm having black coffee, he's which has a cappuccino.
They're handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses that fit his face, hazel eyes
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"So, utilize mind if I kissed you right this moment?' he stated as I get more detailed him and kiss him.

‘Next occasion don't ask, just do it.' I reply.

‘I prefer how we think.' , he said.

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